South Carolina pottery tradition, SC State Museum art and history exhibit

At the SC State Museum we recently enjoyed seeing the “Tangible History:

Making a face jug using early 20th century pottery wheel

The Potter's Wheel demonstration: making a funny face jug using traditional pottery tools

South Carolina Stoneware from the Holcombe Family Collection” exhibit (free with museum admission which is $7 adults, $5 children 3-12).

The best part was the live demonstration with a treadle potter’s wheel, an exact replica of the one used by Billy Henson from the Clayton Pottery Shop in 1940s.

The collection features exquisite stoneware from the old Edgefield district by makers such as Thomas Chandler and Dave the Potter, a famous African-American slave artist.

There is also significant pottery from the Upstate, like the Owensby, Whelchel and Williams Pottery Shops.

Stoneware is fire-hardened clay, that becomes as hard as stone after being heated to about 2,000 degrees. It is highly collectible, especially Edgefield pottery, well-known for its unique alkaline glaze.

Replica of a typical late 19th century and early 20th century pottery shop

The South Carolina stoneware heritage...a potter's treadle wheel

Pit fired cooking ware from the Savannah River

Native American cooking vessel c. 1000 from the Savannah River area

Examples of Edgefield pottery
The SCIWAY website has a great article about the Edgefield Pottery tradition including additional work by Dave the Potter.

19th century pottery from the Edgefield  tradition

Edgefield pottery: 1840 honey pot with a lid

Edgefield district South Carolina pottery tradition

A 10 gallon water cooler by Thomas Chandler, alkaline glaze stoneware with iron slip

Pottery produced by famous African American slaves

Jar by Dave Drake. Most pottery in the 18th and 19th centuries was produced by African-American slaves.

Examples of pottery from the Upstate

Late 19th century household stoneware by Samuel Whelcher

Stoneware from the South Carolina Upstate potteries

1990s pottery jugs from Upstate region

Face jugs classics

While inside the State Museum check out one of the world’s finest collections of individually made telescopes and the Great Charleston Earthquake exhibit, dedicated to the most terrific quake to ever hit the east coast.

The Great Charleston Earthquake of 1886: pictures, stories, facts and quacks on display at the SC State Museum in Columbia

The most destructive earthquake ever recorded in the eastern United States occurred near Charleston at 9:51PM on August 31st, 1886. The quake was felt by two out every three people living in the country! Estimated at a 7.3 magnitude (more powerful than the Haiti earthquake in 2010) the shock lasted about a minute.

The following historical data, pictures and quotes are from the SC State Museum exhibit dedicated to the 125th Anniversary of the Great Charleston Earthquake and the “Faults and Fractures, The Medical Response to the Charleston Earthquake of 1886” article on the MUSC Waring Library website.

Dock Street Theater and St. Philip Church in the aftermath of the 1886 earthquake

View of St. Philip's Episcopal Church right after the quake

More than 100 people were killed and almost every building in Charleston was damaged.

Charlestonians suffered the most psychologically given the 300 aftershocks taking place over the next 3 years.

The earthquake triggered many strange afflictions, even in cities far from the epicenter.

According to the Savannah Morning News, at least a dozen people went insane and had to be sent to lunatic asylums, including “the wives and daughters of prominent citizens.”

“A drugstore clerk started walking on Tuesday night and didn’t stop until he reached a town fifty miles away, where he sent a postcard to his parents saying he could not return.”

Earthquake damage throughout United States:
• Maine: The captain of a schooner off the coast saw “black wall” rising on the water, a mighty wave that lifted the ship to a fantastic height. The schooner was buried in a mountain of foam, its sails torn off and its mast snapped.

• North Carolina Mountains: Flames shot from caverns, leaving behind a cloud of smoke that smelled like burning coal. Massive rocks crashed down into the valley.

• Brooklyn, New York: A telephone operator thought he was having a heart attack when all the plugs on his switchboard popped out of their sockets.

• Terre Haute, Indiana: At a minstrel show the galleries swayed, and one man was thrown out of the balcony; he saved himself by clinging to a railing.

• Dubuque Iowa: The audience in the opera house stampeded, thinking the building was about to fall.

125th anniversary exhibit at the SC State Museum

"People ran through the streets...bare feet cut by broken glass and brick shards. Fires raged across the city."

Earthquake damage in South Carolina
• Dorchester County: Every structure in town was damaged. “…the structure seemed to dance up and down…The doors and ceilings were warped and twisted; the timbers groaned and crackled; the chimneys crashed at their bases, sank downward, carrying fireplaces, mantles and hearthstones through the floors through the ground below.” U.S. Geological Survey final report.

At present day Colonial Dorchester Historic Site, the ruin of 1719 St. George Anglican Church tumbled to the ground. A chuck of the bell tower flew through the air and landed 35 feet away.

• Horse Creek, Aiken County: A train pulling stock cars plunged off the tracks into 40 feet of water. The fireman was killed and four horses drowned. Other animals kicked holes in the cars and swam to safety.

• Adams Run, Charleston County: 20 feet high geysers covered the ground hip-deep with water.

• Ravenel, Charleston County: The ground broke open for 2.5 miles. A man trying to reach his grand-children was cut off by a jet of water.

• Columbia, Richland County: The Congaree River threw up 10 foot waves.

Shock and awe
Within days almost everyone in Charleston abandoned his damaged home to sleep outside, in parks, cemeteries, backyards, on buses, ships, ice wagons, and railroad cars. Ships in the harbor became refugees for the homeless.

Major destruction on the corner pf East bay and Cumberland

Building completely destroyed by the earthquake


By September 3rd, 40,000 people were tenting and encampments bloomed on every piece of open ground. Many families returned to their houses only to flee back when aftershocks struck.

At first black and whites shared the camps, but soon whites moved away from integrated areas like Washington Square Park and congregated instead at White Point Garden by the Battery.

The state government never provided relief money or supplies. After more than a week the city began to erect wooden shelters and substantial tents sent by other states and the U.S. military.

Where is disaster there is also opportunity…
• Within days a large number of tourists from as far away as Boston came to see the wreckage. Railroads scheduled a variety of excursions and sometimes donated funds to the relief effort. On September 12, 1550 visitors arrived from Georgia and Florida, 400 of whom stopped to eat dinner in the city’s big hotels. Most wary of the aftershocks got back on their trains and left before dusk.

• Businessmen scrambled to serve the tourists: stores offered booklets showing the damage, some sold vials of the brightly colored sand and clay brought up by sand blows.

Entrepreneurs profiting from the Charleston quake of 1886

'Earthquake Views...Not an advertising scheme'...yeah right!

When those ran out they filled glass tubes with coffee grounds and red pepper flakes.

• One antique dealer ran ads seeking door knockers, candlesticks and other artifacts that survived the quake to sell to “Northern parties”.

• Agents for dime museums were said to be in town looking for “earthquake babies” as special exhibits. Some twins born the night of the disaster were nicknamed Earth and Quake.

The biggest quake sham of all time!
Earthquake Ray-Charged Copper Battery made by J. M Brasington, Benetsville South Carolina, discoverer of Rays, 1890.

The maker, J.M. Brasington, contends that the battery will intercept and store earthquake rays from 10,000 miles away, and when connected to the body can cure a many illnesses.

How it Works (text from the battery label)

Some try to profit from the earthquake with sham products

The Ray Charged Copper Battery scam of the late 1880s...

“The Battery trap intercepts rays from earthquakes; this stream of rays is the first entering the lower pure blood veins; the rays from the battery immediately enter the upper pure blood veins meeting the quake rays in the heart;

Then it seems million of battery and quake rays shoot out through all blood, flesh, nerves, bones and skin, strengthening the heart nerves, improving resistance to infestation, aiding appetite, digestion, inducing sleep and rest; helps to keep mentally tired man’s body youthful and vigorous.”

How to Use (text from the battery label)
“When taking the hot or cold rays, the wrist band must be on the right or left wrist…Copper traps must be laced to slipper soles, stocking or bare feet. When wrists and straps are properly fitted you will get the Quake and Battery rays even if sitting on rubber, glass, riding in automobile, boat, lying on bed or couch.

Place Battery in any position best suited to your comfort; except the Battery must not be between your feet. While Battery is surrounded by your feet you will get no Earthquake Rays…”


Fun stuff for kids inside the SC State Museum Earthquake exhibit

Test your engineering and architectural skills at the large shake table to see whether you can build an earthquake proof building.

Test your architectural skills

See whether you can build an earthquake proof structure

Check out the one of the base isolation pads used in the renovation of the SC State Capitol in the late 1990s. About $13 million was spent to make the building meet and exceed 20th century earthquake protection codes. A new base isolation system was created to absorb the energy of vibrations caused by earthquakes. 130 base isolation pads were installed to support the building, a first for a major structure building east of the Mississippi River. Nowadays computers monitor any shifts in the ground through these isolators.

Hundreds of base isolation pads were installed under the foundation

The SC State Capitol was the first major building east of the Mississippi River to undergo a massive earthquake prevention renovation.

Learn how to be safe when the earthquake strikes: drop, cover and hold!

Safety tips during an earthquake

Drop, cover and hold!

See more exhibit details in the presentation below:

Read “Upheaval in Charleston: Earthquake and Murder on the Eve of Jim Crow” by Susan Millar Williams and Stephen G. Hoffius, a gripping account of the natural disaster and turbulent social change in Charleston following the Civil War.

The book features Francis Warrington Dawson, editor of Charleston’s News and Courier, who rallied Charlestonians after the earthquake struck by organizing the relief committee and receiving contributions that helped rebuild the city. Hailed as a hero in the aftermath of the earthquake, Dawson was denounced by white supremacists and murdered less than 3 years after the disaster. His killer was acquitted after a sensational trial that unmasked a Charleston underworld of decadence and corruption.

Don’t miss!
You have until end of April 2012 to see the remarkable Body Worlds Vital exhibit at the SC State Museum.

Astronomy lovers check out the incredible collection of historical telescopes, donated by Robert B. Ariail.

Body Worlds Vital at SC State Museum, Columbia fun and exciting things to do with kids

Recently we visited the SC State Museum to see the renown Body Worlds exhibit. We took advantage of the special $1 admission (1st Sunday of the month) and ended up paying $20 total (adult and child tickets). We spent over an hour browsing the galleries and gift shop and we were impressed.

In the elevator leading up to the 4th floor gallery

So excited to see this!


My 7 years old daughter became fascinated with the heart and the circulatory system (see cool facts below). She took the time to complete the survey and gave the exhibit a rave review.

Body Worlds tickets allow full day admission to the entire museum
• $18 adults ($8 members)
• $15 seniors ($7 members)
• $12 children 3-12 ($6 members)

Hours
• Tue 10AM – 8PM
• Wed,Thu and Fri 10AM – 5PM
• Sat 10AM – 6PM
• Sun 1 – 5PM

Body Worlds Vital is the latest installment in the Human Saga by Gunther von Hagens. It features 200 real body specimens, presented without skin using plastination, so you can see bones, muscles, tendons, nerves, blood vessels and all of the internal organs. You get a deep understanding of how the body works when is healthy and what happens when is sick. Smart displays drive the healthy lifestyle point home: respect your body or else.

Revealing posters lining up the exit of the Body Worlds exhibit

In your face...smoking kills people!

Things to know before you go
• Come early. We arrived at opening time and got in real fast. Most importantly we were able to browse all the stations at our own pace, taking time to see the displays and read all the explanations. Two hours later there were at least 200 people in line waiting to be allowed in the exhibit…not to mention those waiting at the museum check-in line!

• Not sure whether this is right for you and the kids? Check out the exhibit video, Family Guide and FAQ provided by the state museum. There is enough visuals to help you decide.

• Tickets are non-refundable and are good for just one entry. The Body Worlds exhibit closes on April 15, 2012.

People lining up to enter the Body Worlds exhibition

People lined up to see the remarkable Body Worlds Vital exhibit

Cool Body Facts
• At birth, humans have 300 bones. As a baby grows, however, many of the smaller bones fuse together so that adults have just 206 bones. Half of the bones are in the hands and feet.
• The brain uses 25% of the oxygen you take in. It transmits signals to the body at 100 miles an hour.
• Lungs are made up of about 600 million spongy bags called alveoli. Lungs are the only organs in the body light enough to float on water.
• If all the blood vessels were laid end to end, they would extend about 60,000 miles, far enough to circle the Earth twice.

We also enjoyed the Body Worlds gift shop, especially the pictures of plastinates from the animal kingdom. It’s fun to compare the inner workings of the human body to that of other animals.

Animal plastinate pictures at the SC State Museum gift shop

This is how you do it

While inside the museum check out the 125th Anniversary exhibit of the Great Charleston Earthquake of 1886, the greatest quake ever recorded in the eastern United States (biggest than the one in Haiti!).


Be smart, have fun in beautiful South Carolina!

Bad girls at sea…the amazing story of Mary Read, Anne Bony and Calico Jack

John Calico Jack Rackham was an English pirate who ravaged the Caribbean shores at the end of the Golden Age. His nickname stemmed from the colorful calico clothes he wore. He is famous for being the only known captain with female crew members and for his skull and crossbones Jolly Roger, nowadays most popular piracy symbols.

Brave blood thirsty ferocious women sailors privateers

Ladies of steel, Mary Read and Anne Bonny


Calico Jack met Anne Bonny in the port of Nassau, in Bahamas. Although Anne was married to an informant for the British government, the two quickly heated off and ran away, thus committing adultery and also voiding Jack’s pardon.

One day, Calico Jack captured a Dutch merchant vessel and its crew that counted the incognito Mary Read.

Mary “Mark” Read was an illegitimate child from England, similar to Anne who was an illegitimate child from Ireland.

Her mother would dress her like a boy to obtain financial support from Mary’s paternal grandmother.

As a teenager, Mary ran away and joined the army, where she fell in love with a soldier. They married and opened an inn in Holland. After her husband died Mary decided to dress like a man and venture at sea.

Not knowing she was a woman, Rackham welcomed Mary Read aboard his ship to join his crew. Anne Bonny started to have feelings for Read.

Fierce female pirate in the 18th century

You should not mess with Mary!


Legend has it that Mary revealed her gender to Anne by exposing her breasts.

The two women became fast friends, and according to some sources, lesbian lovers as well.

Rackham, become jealous and threatened to kill Read. He reportedly burst in the cabin once, finding them partially undressed.

Others say that actually Mary fell in love with a male crew member. Her love was so intense that she defended him with her own life by killing another man in a duel.

Captain “Calico Jack” made a career of plundering small vessels close to the Caribbean coastline. This boldness proved to be his undoing. In the fall of 1720 he cruised near Jamaica, capturing many small fishing boats, and terrorizing locals along the northern coastline.

“Come up, you cowards, and fight like men!…”
Jamaican Governor Woodes Rogers (a former pirate himself!) ordered the capture of Rackham’s ship and crew. The drunken sailors retreated to their cabins after the British soldiers boarded the ship. Mary Read, Anne Bonny, and one unknown pirate stayed on deck attempting to fight off the attack.

Pirates of the Caribbean in 17 and 18 centuries

He died like a dog...hanged, tarred and gibbeted

Mary Read was enraged by the drunken cowardice of the crew and fired her pistol into the cabin, killing a shipmate.

After a mighty struggle, the British officers overtook the crew and brought them to shore to be trialed for piracy.

At Calico Jack’s trial, Anne Bonny was asked to testify on his behalf and she told the court: “If he had fought like a man, he need not have been hanged like a dog.”

Rackham was hanged at Gallows-Point in Port Royal on November 18, 1720. His body tarred, hanged in a cage, and gibbeted on display at main entrance to Port Royal, presently known as Rackham’s Cay.

“Mi’lord, we plead our bellies”
Anne Bonny and Mary Read escaped execution by claiming they were both “quick with child”. Mary died of a terrible fever during childbirth. Anne disappeared from all historical records, spurring much speculation regarding her fate. Some believe her well-connected father bailed her out of jail, and she moved to America and had a family. Others say she returned to piracy.

Captain Charles Johnson putted best in his book: “What has become of her since, we cannot tell; only this we know, that she was not executed.”

Ready to plunder the high seas? Go to the SC State Museum downtown Columbia and enjoy the blockbuster Pirates, Privateers and Buccaneers exhibit. It runs till January 2011!

All about Pirates! Jolly Rogers, medicine, crime and punishment (State Museum attractions)

Call them sea thieves, entrepreneurs, mischievous warriors, or wild creatures…For centuries pirates have ruled the high seas, terrorized merchants, ran havoc along the coast and sprung countless myths and legends. Love them or hate them they are here to stay.

This post sheds some light on the pirate lifestyle: flag designs and symbols, how they dealt with injuries and battle wounds and what methods of discipline they used to maintain order aboard their ships. Historic data is from the SC State Museum exhibits.

Battle Flags Henry Avery Christopher Moody Condent

Jolly Rogers of most notorious pirates


Jolly Rogers – The first recorded Jolly Roger belonged to Emanuel Wynn, a French pirate who flew a black ensign “with cross-bones, a death’s head and an hourglass” in 1700.

The skull and the cross-bones signified death. An hour glass implied time was running out for the intended victims if they didn’t immediately surrender. Other flag symbols included spears, swords, skeletons, and bleeding hearts.

Pirates sometimes used a red or “bloody” flag to indicate that no quarter will be given should a ship be captured.

When approaching a merchant ship, pirates would normally fly the black flag suggesting no harm would be done to the crew who readily surrendered. However, when a ship tried to flee or fight, the red flag quickly replaced the black one.

The use of the red flag may have originated with the red ensign the English privateers flew in 1694 during King William’s War. Once the hostilities ended, many of them turned to piracy and so the red flag practice continued.

How medicine was applied for pirates

The carpenter was also the medic

Medicine – Few pirate ships had the luxury of a surgeon.

The ship’s carpenter often handled minor surgeries and amputations.

Keep in mind sterilization, antiseptics and anesthetics were unknown.

Victims swallowed rum or brandy in hopes the alcohol with numb the pain…

The “doctor” had to be able to read and understand Latin as most medicine bottles were labeled in this language. The misuse of drugs was quite spread.

Medicine and medical instruments held high value, although most had questionable uses.

Blackbeard famously demanded that Charleston pay his ransom in medicine not riches! He clearly understood and valued its importance.

Common tools for doctors at sea

Life on board was tough. Dealing with wounds even tougher...


Here are some 18th century reproductions of medical tools that pirates may have used to repair wounds and amputate limbs.

There are capital knives, a double retractor, and a capital sow…in other words high class surgery!

For further reading, checkout the well prepared article Medicine at Sea by Cindy Vallar.

It has freakish stories, witty quotes and a brief summary of the world’s first medicine manual:
“The Surgeons Mate” by John Woodall, first published in 1617.

Crime and Punishment…
Pirate crews were large compared to those on merchant vessels. With many people doing chores, pirates had plenty of idle time and often got into fights. Sometimes they settled their quarrels ashore “dueling it” out.

Marooning – Breaking the pirate code was considered a major infraction that often resulted in marooning as punishment. A marooned pilot was left to his fate on a deserted island with little or no food and water. Remember Jack Sparrow in the Pirates of the Caribbean?

Stock and Pillory – Pillories were set up to hold up petty criminals in marketplaces, crossroads and other public places.

In the pillory goes the little thief

Having fun at the SC State Museum


They were often placed on platforms to increases visibility. The punishment usually lasted for few hours and sometimes folks will throw garbage at the offender.

Keelhauling – This was probably the most cruel and painful methods of punishment.

A rope was passed under the ship, the offender was tied to one end and thrown in the water. Then, he was dragged beneath the ship and up the other side, scraping himself across sharp edged barnacles along the way.

Keelhauling could take place multiple times based on the crime and could easily result in the pirate’s death.

Hanging – This was the worst and final punishment a pirate could receive.

Methods of punishment buccaneers privateers corsairs

A pirate under water at the SC State Museum

The lingo calls it “dancing the hempen jig” or “doing the gallow’s dance”.

Many pirates were hung up in chains or in an iron cage called the gibbet.

Walking the plank – Most infamous punishment was forcing the pirate to “walk the plank”. Yet the practice belongs more in legend than in truth.

One published account does appear in 1822 of a Spanish pirate forcing a victim to walk on a plank over the side of the ship into the sea. The report made big news at the time. Some believe this is where Robert Louis Stevenson got the idea for his Treasure Island novel sixty years later? and the rest is history…

You too can be a pirate for a day at the SC State Museum downtown Columbia. The Pirates, Privateers and Buccaneers exhibit runs through January 2nd. Tickets are $5 adults and $3 for children ages 3-12 in addition to general admission ($7 and $4 respectively).

Ahoy me hearties!

The “Infernal Machine”! HL Hunley’s submarine amazing artifacts and good-luck charms

The find of the century…

The Charleston Harbor is home to the country’s most intriguing Civil War naval battle. Yes, I’m talking about the one and only HL Hunley, also called “The Diver”, “The Infernal Machine”, “The Fish Boat”, “The Peripatetic Coffin”. The Hunley was the world’s first combat submarine to successfully sink an enemy ship, and recently, I got a chance to see it.

The museum is open Saturday 9AM – 5PM and Sunday noon – 5PM. Admission is $12 (free for kids 5 years and under) and includes a 20 minutes guided talk on top of the 90,000 gallons tank holding the Hunley, access to interactive exhibits and two full size

Inside the submarine hull

Playing inside Hunley full size replica from the TNT movie

submarines replicas, and viewing of the Natl Geographic “Raising the Hunley” documentary.

Among the 3,000 artifacts recovered from the mysterious HL Hunley submarine, the most incredible findings are those not yet displayed to the public:

Like Lt. George Dixon’s watch, that when opened had the hands still in position!…or crewmen brain tissue inside the skulls, soft tissue in the shoes, and most amazing discovery of all… fingerprints!

However, here are the cool ones you can see at the HL Hunley Lauch Conservation Center (historic data taken from the exhibits):

The power of love
For more than a century a romantic legend has captured the hearts and minds of countless Civil War history buffs: the story of the lucky $20 gold coin that saved the life of Lt. George Dixon, the captain who lead HL Hunley in its final mission.

It was believed, his sweetheart, Queenie Bennet gave Dixon a 1860-minted gold coin as a good luck charm. And the coin delivered!

$20 gold coin replica HL Hunley Museum

The lucky coin that dodged a bullet during Civil War Shiloh battle

During the 1862 Battle of Shiloh, he was shot point blank. A bullet ripped into the pocket of his trousers and struck the center of the coin. The impact was said to have left the gold piece bent, with the bullet embedded in it.

Was the legend true or merely a romantic tale?

The world got the answer 137 years later. In 2000, during the excavation of the H.L. Hunley, the gold coin was discovered next to the remains of Lt. George Dixon. It was deeply indented and carried traces of lead!

The front of the coin features the Lady Liberty image, while the back has the Shield and Eagle symbol and a hand inscription:

Shiloh
April 6, 1862
My life Preserver
G. E. D.

The above photo is from the coin replica displayed inside the HL Hunley Museum. It was cast from the original. Now, for $10, you can purchase a similar gold coin replica from the Friends of the Hunley online store.

Dixon’s gold and diamond ring and brooch…another charm, another love story?
While excavating the fragile waterlogged textiles of Lt. Dixon the Hunley research team uncovered two enigmatic pieces of gold jewelry:

9 diamonds 24 carat gold ring and 37 small diamonds brooch

Exquisite diamond gold jewelry on a Civil War secret mission?


• A 18-24 carat gold ring with 9 large diamonds It has no inscriptions or jewelry marks and resembles a ring for a rich and more mature woman.

• A gold brooch with 37 small diamonds. Originally pinned to a small piece of fabric, it appears to have been wrapped in cloth along with the ring, most likely for safekeeping.

The brooch featured a popular 1820s design symbolizing wealth and high status for its owner.

It is believed the two pieces were made from different jewelers. Together they represented quite a fortune during Civil War.

Why did Dixon carry such expensive jewelry with him in a perilous battle? Whom did they belong to? Were they also a lucky charm gift?

It was known that Lt. Dixon was a “ladies man”….

A Union soldier fighting with the Confederates on board Hunley?!
On April 27, 2001, the excavation team was surprised to discover a Union ID tag inside one of the most secret Confederate naval weapon!

Prized enemy capture discovered inside HL Hunley

Another Civil War mystery solved ~130 years later: Ezra Chamberlain's medallion found with a Confederate soldier inside the HL Hunley submarine


The ID tag was found on the skull of one of the Hunley crewmen, bearing the name and class of Ezra Chamberlain, Private, 7th Connecticut Infantry, Union Forces.

Was Ezra onboard that fateful night? Did he switch sides?

Was he a prisoner and thus forced to operate the Hunley?

Was Ezra’s ID tag picked up from the battlefield by a Hunley crewman as a souvenir of war?

Mystery Solved! Early 2002, forensic experts found that the Hunley crewman wearing the tag was in his 30s, while Ezra would have been only 24 at the time of the mission. Further research suggests that Pvt. Chamberlain was killed in action 7 months earlier, during the Fort Wagner battle on Morris Island.

The brass medallion was indeed a battlefield souvenir picked up by Joseph Ridgaway.

A candle in the wind…
This simple white candle was used to light the interior of the submarine.

Mind boggling discoveries from H.L. Hunley submarine Civil War battle

Only one candle lit the cramped 4 foot interior ...here it is more than a century later

When the flame of the candle diminished, the crew knew the oxygen level in the hull was getting low.

Before the Hunley’s last mission, Lt. Dixon put the crew to rigorous training to test their physical and emotional endurance.

On one occasion the men hat to wait at their stations for 2 and half hours, in complete darkness, while the submarine was resting on the ocean floor.

This exercise proved extremely helpful during the mission since most of the navigation was done after the candle light blew off.

To walk in their shoes…
When found this leather shoe still had bones and tissue inside, more than 130 years after the submarine sinking!

Priceless Civil War blockade naval warfare memorabilia

A shoe from the past...another inspirational human touch from HL Hunley submarine

Where is smoke, is (explosion) fire…
Three wooden tobacco pipe bowls were found inside the Hunley, with one still holding a tobacco wad! Among the personal possessions scientists also found the remains of a delicate matchstick.

Civil War Charleston Harbor Blockade memorabilia

One of three tobacco pipes found inside the Fish Boat

Dress for success…
On May 3rd, 1995, NUMA (National Underwater Marine Agency) archaeologist

Original uniforms of the NUMA crew who discovered the submarine

The suit of the man who first touched the Hunley

Harry Pecorelli, wore this wetsuit during his first dive to investigate an object on the ocean floor.

Upon touching the sub, he radioed back to the boat, “I don’t know what it is, but it is definitely not the Hunley.”

The structure proved to be the Hunley, and Harri Pecorelli became the first person to touch the elusive submarine in more than 130 years!

Then Harry was affectionately nicknamed “the first person to have never found the Hunley.”

Check out this cool animation of the “2000 Raising of Hunley” provided on the museum official website.

A face to remember
The human remains underwent comprehensive analysis by some of the world’s most noted forensic anthropologists.

The real faces of the HL Hunley volunteers

The heroic crew of HL Hunley who sunk the Housatonic

The results were remarkable showing the crew spatial distribution and the facial reconstruction of each member.

A biographical and physical portrait was assembled for each man who perished in the 1864 attack.

In 2004 the crew was buried with full military honors at Magnolia Cemetery in Charleston. They were laid to rest next to the two previous crews who also died while serving on HL Hunley.

2011 update! Hunley is sitting in an upright position almost 150 years after its sinking.
“Instead of looking like an artifact, it now looks like a stealth weapon,” said Sen. Glenn McConnell, chairman of the South Carolina Hunley Commission. The newly exposed side of the hull may finally reveal the answers needed in solving the century old mystery…”we are seeing some tantalizing clues on that side,” said Hunley lead archaeologist Maria Jacobsen.

Relive the Civil War’s true “Mission Impossible” with the HL Hunley in Charleston!

Powers of Nature at work! Hit by lightning at the SC State Museum in Columbia

Well just pretend. The make your own lightning interactive stations are very popular with kids. Who wouldn’t?

In the eye of a monster storm

In the eye of a monster storm

There’s lot more fun things to do and learn at the Powers of Nature exhibit, SC State Museum newest science attraction:

• Create your own tornado
• Touch the world’s largest hail stone (it’s huge!)
• Watch brave hunters fly into monster hurricanes
• Test your building skills creating an earthquake-proof structure
• Do a live TV weather forecast

Admission is $3 extra (free for members) for a total price of $8.

Love and respect Mother Nature wherever you are!